Municipal Wastewater Treatment Using Low Cost Treatment Technology in Small Communities
Hala M. Elkamah, Hala S. Doma, Ahmed H. Salem
National Research Center. Water Pollution Research Department, Cairo, Egypt
*Corresponding author: Hala M. Elkamah
The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of the horizontal flow bio-film reactor in the treatment of municipal wastewater in small communities. Horizontal flow bio-film reactor was designed, constructed and tested for the removal of organic carbon and nitrogen from domestic wastewater. It consists of a stack of 40 horizontal polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets embedded with 15 mm deep frustums. The wastewater continuously dosed onto the reactor and flowed horizontally along each sheet and vertically shifted down through the reactor. The system operated for almost 466 days, under four hydraulic loading rates, namely 225.6, 347.7, 451.1 and 582.71 l m-2 d-1. The calculations of the hydraulic rates are based on the Top Plan Surface Area (TPSA) of the reactor. The performance of the treatment system was monitored via complete physico–chemical and bacteriological analysis of both raw and treated wastewater. The overall efficiency of the treatment system resulted in considerable removals of COD (91%), BOD (93%), TSS (92%) and ammonia-Nitrogen (74%). Horizontal Flow Bio-Film Reactor technology could provide a suitable alternative, which can be applied in rural areas and small communities. The system has proved that it has many benefits such as, low cost in manufacturing and maintenance, simplicity of operation, as well as the production of high quality effluent which can be reused in multiple aspects.