EJER, 2016, Vol. 4 July (5)
Extraction Efficiency and Chemical Speciation of Iodine in Soil (Technical Paper)
Waleed.H. Shetaya1,2*, Elizabeth. H. Bailey1, Scott D. Young1
1Air Pollution Department, Environmental Research Division, National Research Centre, 33 EL Bohouth St., Dokki, Giza, 12622, Egypt 2Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham,Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE12 5RD, United Kingdom
The extraction efficiency of tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) for soil iodine, and the effects of experimental procedures and conditions on the speciation of extracted iodine were tested. In addition, the possibility of extracting radioactive inorganic iodineforms (129I- and 129IO3-) sorbed on soil metal oxides by competition with PO43- was investigated. Results showed that changing TMAH concentration, extraction time, extraction temperature or soil particle size did not generally affect the concentrations of total iodine extracted. The ratio of iodide to total iodine in the TMAH extracts varied with the extraction conditions which led to the conclusion that part, or all, of the measured iodide is possibly produced by hydrolysis of organic iodine forms. This conclusion was confirmed by the detection of high concentrations of iodide in TMAH extracts of a humic acid. Only iodide was observedin the phosphate extracts of soil and it constituted up to 33% of the total iodine in the KH2PO4 extracts which indicates that most of the iodine mobilised by KH2PO4 is organically bound. When soil / KH2PO4 suspensions were spiked with 129I- and 129IO3-, at least 50% of 129I-and 15% of 129IO3-wasrecoverable after 72 hours of reaction. The lowest recoveries were observed atthe highest concentration of KH2PO4, which also mobilised the greatest concentrations of DOC, indicating that although KH2PO4 is capable of releasing soil-sorbed iodide and iodate, it may also promote iodide and iodate reaction with soil organic matter.
Identification of RAPD and ISSR Markers for Drought Stress in Some Egyptian Durum Varieties
1Haiba, A.A.A., 2M.A.H.Youssef, 1S.A.A. Heiba*, 1HodaB. M. Ali and 2A. S. Ibrahim
To develop crop plants with enhanced tolerance of drought stress, a basic understand of physiology and genetics is essential. Six durum wheat genotypes namely Bani-Swaif 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 and Sohag3 were first screened to get the most tolerant and sensitive genotypes. Then the tolerant, sensitive plants and their F1 and F2 were used for molecular indicators of drought tolerance using RAPD and ISSR techniques. Six RAPD and five ISSR primers were used to identify markers assisted selection (MAS) of drought tolerance. Under this study, RAPD technique exhibited 4 positive and 5 negative markers while ISSR revealed 6 positive and 6 negative markers.
Municipal Wastewater Treatment Using Low Cost Treatment Technology in Small Communities
Hala M. Elkamah, Hala S. Doma, Ahmed H. Salem
National Research Center. Water Pollution Research Department, Cairo, Egypt
*Corresponding author: Hala M. Elkamah
The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of the horizontal flow bio-film reactor in the treatment of municipal wastewater in small communities. Horizontal flow bio-film reactor was designed, constructed and tested for the removal of organic carbon and nitrogen from domestic wastewater. It consists of a stack of 40 horizontal polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets embedded with 15 mm deep frustums. The wastewater continuously dosed onto the reactor and flowed horizontally along each sheet and vertically shifted down through the reactor. The system operated for almost 466 days, under four hydraulic loading rates, namely 225.6, 347.7, 451.1 and 582.71 l m-2 d-1. The calculations of the hydraulic rates are based on the Top Plan Surface Area (TPSA) of the reactor. The performance of the treatment system was monitored via complete physico–chemical and bacteriological analysis of both raw and treated wastewater. The overall efficiency of the treatment system resulted in considerable removals of COD (91%), BOD (93%), TSS (92%) and ammonia-Nitrogen (74%). Horizontal Flow Bio-Film Reactor technology could provide a suitable alternative, which can be applied in rural areas and small communities. The system has proved that it has many benefits such as, low cost in manufacturing and maintenance, simplicity of operation, as well as the production of high quality effluent which can be reused in multiple aspects.
Prevalence of Legionella spp. and Helicobacter pylori in different water resources in Egypt
Mohamed Azab El-Liethya*, Bahaa A. Hemdana, Einas H. El-Shatouryb, Mohamed A. Abou-Zeidb, Farag A. Samhana, Gamila E. El-Taweela
aBacteriology Lab., Water Pollution Research Department, Environmental Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza,12622, Egypt. bMicrobiology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University. El- Khalifa El-Mamon St., Abbassia, Cairo, 11566, Egypt
The main objective of this investigation was to detect Legionella spp. and Helicobacter pylori in different types of water resources. One hundred seventy five different water samples were collected from Egypt. Water samples were collected from Nile River (Rossita Branch), the Mediterranean Sea at Marsa Matroh shore, El-Rahawy Drain, hospital wastewater and groundwater. Legionella spp. and Helicobacter pylori were determined using membrane filtration and spread plate techniques. Legionella spp. and H. pylori were detected using culture methods on selective media in 25 and 33% of the total examined water samples, respectively. The biochemical tests for Legionella spp. showed that, 6 (35%) out of 17 might belong to L. pneumophila and 4 (23%) out of 17 belonged to non-pneumophila Legionella species. Eight out 27 (29%) isolates showed positive results for urease, catalase, oxidase, motility tests and negative nitrate reduction were confirmed as H. pylori. The results concluded that further monitoring and identification should be carried out in the future for the presence pathogens in water resources.
Review Article: Transportation Control Measures for Air Pollution Reduction in Greater Cairo
*Hassan, S. K. M.
Air Pollution Department, Environmental Research Division, National Research Centre
Economic growth and urban development is normally associated with pressing need for transport. When public transport cannot support such development an increased demand on private cars is usually the result. The fossil fuels related pollution has been recently aggravated by the rapid development and urbanization. Tailpipe emissions usually include hydrocarbons (HC) (totally/partly burned fuel), NOx (reaction of air nitrogen with oxygen in the high pressure conditions of the engines to give Nitrogen Oxides), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Traffic–related primary PM emissions may also include elemental carbon (EC), organic compounds (OC), and re-suspended dust and heavy metals from braking and general vehicles wearing processes The stages through which automobile emissions can be controlled may be : pre-combustion stage in which fuel quality can be optimized, combustion stage where engines could be modified, and post-combustion stage where exhaust could be catalytically converted to more benign constituents. Policies and regulations can thus be directed toward any of these stages and can aim at either producers or dealers. Non-technical ways such as behavioral adaptations in the mode of transport and frequency of cars maintenance can also be applied. Moreover, governments can enforce vehicle emission control policies such as: 1- Phasing out leaded gasoline which was proven effective in reducing lead emissions, 2-Adoption of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles as an alternative to gasoline fueled ones was also suggested to reduce major pollutants and greenhouse gases emissions ,3- Compressed natural gas (CNG) engines emit significantly lower levels of CO, TSP, NOx and SO2,4- Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) usage in taxis and buses instead of diesel was also found to substantially reduce the emissions of NOx and respirable suspended particulates (RSPs) .So, there is a pressing need to promote CNG, LNG, and other clean alternative fuels used in public transport, and to promote the use of clean energy vehicles like the hybrid cars through preferential policies.