EJER, 2016 Vol.5 October (5)
A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Egypt
Assmaa M. El-Mekawy1, Atef M.F. Mohammed1, Salwa K. M. Hassan1
1Air Pollution Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
Fax: +20 2 33370931; Tel: +20 2 33371362
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) makea class of organic compounds consisting of two or more fused aromatic rings in linear, angular or cluster arrangements. There are hundreds of PAH compounds in the environment, but only 16 of them are included in the priority pollutants list of US EPA. PAHs exist in the atmosphere as gases and are adsorbed to airborne particulate matter. The main aim of this article was to review the concentrations of PAHs in suspended particulate matter (PM) collected from different sites in Egypt (Outdoor and Indoor) during different periods.
The levels of PAHs in outdoor PM samples collected from Shoubra El-Kheima and Helwan in Greater Cairo were higher than WHO guideline (870 ng/m3 for PAH in occupational settings). While the levels of PAHs in PM samples collected from El-Abasya, El Dokki, El Teppen and Damietta City were lower than WHO Guidelines. In addition, these results May be attributed to anthropogenic activities (vehicle emission, open burning, thermal power plants, industrial emission) in Shoubra El-Kheima and Helwan areas. Furthermore, the levels of PAHs in PM samples were higher than that measured in Chicago-USA, Harbin-China, Guangzhou-China, Seoul-Korea, Athens-Greece, Bursa-Turkey and Flanders- Belgium. The annual mean concentrations of ΣPAHs in indoor PM collected from 4 sites in Helwan city were 1019.8, 694.7,1038.7 and 811.1 ng/m3 for sites 1 (Helwan center), 2 (highly traffic area in Helwan center) , 3 (Wady Hoff) and 4 (Torra) , respectively. In addition, PAHs concentrations demonstrated considerable seasonal variations, the highest levels were found during spring and summer, while the lowest values were found in winter season for all sites in Helwan city.
Sandwich ELISA & Conventional PCR for Diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection (A Field Study)
Eman M.H. Méabed1, Eman E.Taher2*, Nancy O. Kamel3, Dina M. H. El Akkad4 and M.M. El-Bahy5
Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Fayoum University1
Clinical Parasitology Unit, Research Institute of Ophthalmology2
Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, October 6 University3
Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine Cairo University4
Parasitology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University5
*Corresponding author: Eman E.Shabrawi Taher, Clinical Parasitology Department, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt .
Telephone contact: +201002590342
Schistosomiasis is a major public health problem. Accurate early diagnosis is strongly recommended to provide proper treatment before progressing to complications. Objective and methods: the aim of this study was to detect S. mansoni infected cases in two villages at Fayoum Governorate, Egypt, through application of different diagnostic methods. In field, subjects were primary screened by Kato Katz (KK) and Sandwich Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA). ELISA was performed for antigen detection in both serum and saliva samples. Then conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used to examine 366 selected preserved serum samples, and results were compared with earlier tests.
Results: Among 1330 subjects completed the study and gave the required samples, KK revealed prevalence of S. mansoni infection among the study population (1.8%). In comparison with the standard KK technique, ELISA detecting antigen in serum and/or saliva samples gave sensitivity rates up to 100% and specificity rates (≥ 99%). PCR sensitivity and specificity were (95.8% & 96.2%) in comparison with KK.
Conclusion: S. mansoni is still prevalent in the study areas with low rate of transmission. Sandwich ELISA assay for S. mansoni circulating antigen detection is a sensitive and specific
Egyptian Journal of Environmental Research EJER, Vol. 5, October 2016
diagnostic tool (either applied on serum or saliva samples) with results in the same range with PCR.
Physico-mechanical properties of eco-friendly alkali activated industrial solid wastes and ordinary Portland cement pastesWritten by Mohamed
Physico-mechanical properties of eco-friendly alkali activated industrial solid wastes and ordinary Portland cement pastes
S. A. Abo-El-Eneina, H. A. Abdel Gawwad*b, M. Khalifac, M. I. El-Gammald, Talaat. A. Hegazyd
aChemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University bRaw Building Materials Research Institute, Housing and Building National Research Center cDirector of Hazardous Materials Management, Ministry of Environment – cabinet of ministries dEnvironment sciences Department, Faculty of Science, Dumyat University
The aim of this work is to evaluate the physico-mechanical properties of alkali activated industrial solid wastes and ordinary Portland cement pastes. Ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS), ceramic waste (CW) and glass waste (GW) as industrial solid wastes were used in this investigation. These wastes were activated by alkaline solution to produce binding materials, which may be used as alternative to ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Alkali activated-GGBFS, GGBFS-CW and GW pastes have been prepared. Compressive strength and drying shrinkage were carried out, in order for the hardened pastes of OPC and alkali activated industrial solid wastes. The microstructure and phase composition of hydration products formed in alkali activated industrial solid wastes and hydrated OPC were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transformer infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The results showed that the alkali activated-GW and alkali activated-GGBFS presented the highest compressive strength and drying shrinkage values. The replacement of GGBFS by CW led to enhance compressive strength and reduce drying shrinkage, making the alkali activated GGBFS/CW beneficially used as alternative to OPC.
Morphological and Molecular Detection of Potentially Pathogenic Free-Living Amoebae in Swimming Pool SamplesWritten by Mohamed
Amoebae in Swimming Pool Samples
Ahmad Z. Al-Herrawy*1; Mahmoud A. Gad1; Ahmed Abd El-Aziz2; Mouhamed F. Abou-El Nour2; Fayz M. Shaldoum2;Amgad Salahuldeen2
1- Environmental Parasitology Lab., Water Pollution Research Dept., National Research Centre, 12622 Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
2- Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
Free-living amoebae (FLAs) include several medically important genera such as Naegleria spp. Acanthamoeba spp. and Hartmannella spp. A total of 48 water samples were collected from swimming pool samples (24 water and 24 swab samples). Samples were processed for detection of free-living amoebae using non-nutrient agar (NNA). The isolates of free-living amoebae were microscopically identified to the genus level based on the morphologic criteria and molecularly confirmed by the aid of PCR using genus-specific primers.
The results of the present study showed that the highest percentage of FLAs was recorded in swimming pool swab samples (70.8), while the lowest was recorded in swimming pool water samples (54.2%). Seasonally, the highest occurrence percentage of FLAs in swimming pool water samples was observed in summer season (100%) then it decreased to be 66.7, 33.3, and 16.7% in spring, autumn and winter, respectively. Genus Acanthamoeba was the most prevalent genus in swimming pool swab samples (54.2%) as well as swimming pool water samples (33.3%). Morphological identification of the isolated FLAs showed the presence of 3 genera namely Acanthamoeba, Naegleria and Vermamoeba (Hartmannella) that were confirmed by PCR.
In conclusion, the appearance of FLAs especially potentially pathogenic amoebae in swimming pool samples may cause a potential health threat.
Ambient and indoor air suspended particulate matter in Helwan homes
Alia Abd El-Shakoura, Ahmad Salem El-Ebiarieb, Yasser Hassan Ibrahima, Ahmad Esmat Abdel Moniemb, Asmaa Mohamed El-Mekawya
a Air Pollution Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
b Zoology and Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt
Address for correspondence:
Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) measurements in both indoor and outdoor air of residential homes, located in four residential sectors of Helwan city, south Cairo, Egypt, were conducted during one year (Sep. 2010 to Aug. 2011). The highest ambient SPM level was determined in site 2 (Helwan city center/commercial/residential area) reaching 320.32±87.01 μg/m3. The mean annual concentration of SPM in the atmosphere of Helwan city was 256.13 μg/m3. The maximum annual mean concentration of SPM in the indoor air was recorded at site 4 (Torra/ popular residential area), reaching 202.75±47.2 μg/m3. The mean annual concentration of SPM in all of the investigated homes in Helwan city was 152.25μg/m3. Indoor annual mean concentration of SPM was higher than outdoor (I/O ratio) at site 3 during autumn season reaching 1.03 which indicate the role of indoor sources of pollution at this site. In conclusion the study clarifies the impact of indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution on air quality inside homes and their effects on residences.