Mohamed

Mohamed

A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Egypt

A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Egypt
Assmaa M. El-Mekawy1, Atef M.F. Mohammed1, Salwa K. M. Hassan1
1Air Pollution Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
*Corresponding author: Asmaa M. El-Mekawy, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Fax: +20 2 33370931; Tel: +20 2 33371362
Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) makea class of organic compounds consisting of two or more fused aromatic rings in linear, angular or cluster arrangements. There are hundreds of PAH compounds in the environment, but only 16 of them are included in the priority pollutants list of US EPA. PAHs exist in the atmosphere as gases and are adsorbed to airborne particulate matter. The main aim of this article was to review the concentrations of PAHs in suspended particulate matter (PM) collected from different sites in Egypt (Outdoor and Indoor) during different periods.
The levels of PAHs in outdoor PM samples collected from Shoubra El-Kheima and Helwan in Greater Cairo were higher than WHO guideline (870 ng/m3 for PAH in occupational settings). While the levels of PAHs in PM samples collected from El-Abasya, El Dokki, El Teppen and Damietta City were lower than WHO Guidelines. In addition, these results May be attributed to anthropogenic activities (vehicle emission, open burning, thermal power plants, industrial emission) in Shoubra El-Kheima and Helwan areas. Furthermore, the levels of PAHs in PM samples were higher than that measured in Chicago-USA, Harbin-China, Guangzhou-China, Seoul-Korea, Athens-Greece, Bursa-Turkey and Flanders- Belgium. The annual mean concentrations of ΣPAHs in indoor PM collected from 4 sites in Helwan city were 1019.8, 694.7,1038.7 and 811.1 ng/m3 for sites 1 (Helwan center), 2 (highly traffic area in Helwan center) , 3 (Wady Hoff) and 4 (Torra) , respectively. In addition, PAHs concentrations demonstrated considerable seasonal variations, the highest levels were found during spring and summer, while the lowest values were found in winter season for all sites in Helwan city.

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Sandwich ELISA & Conventional PCR for Diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection (A Field Study)

Sandwich ELISA & Conventional PCR for Diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection (A Field Study)
Eman M.H. Méabed1, Eman E.Taher2*, Nancy O. Kamel3, Dina M. H. El Akkad4 and M.M. El-Bahy5
Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Fayoum University1
Clinical Parasitology Unit, Research Institute of Ophthalmology2
Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, October 6 University3
Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine Cairo University4
Parasitology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University5
*Corresponding author: Eman E.Shabrawi Taher, Clinical Parasitology Department, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt .
e-mail :This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Telephone contact: +201002590342
Abstract
Schistosomiasis is a major public health problem. Accurate early diagnosis is strongly recommended to provide proper treatment before progressing to complications. Objective and methods: the aim of this study was to detect S. mansoni infected cases in two villages at Fayoum Governorate, Egypt, through application of different diagnostic methods. In field, subjects were primary screened by Kato Katz (KK) and Sandwich Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA). ELISA was performed for antigen detection in both serum and saliva samples. Then conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used to examine 366 selected preserved serum samples, and results were compared with earlier tests.
Results: Among 1330 subjects completed the study and gave the required samples, KK revealed prevalence of S. mansoni infection among the study population (1.8%). In comparison with the standard KK technique, ELISA detecting antigen in serum and/or saliva samples gave sensitivity rates up to 100% and specificity rates (≥ 99%). PCR sensitivity and specificity were (95.8% & 96.2%) in comparison with KK.
Conclusion: S. mansoni is still prevalent in the study areas with low rate of transmission. Sandwich ELISA assay for S. mansoni circulating antigen detection is a sensitive and specific
Egyptian Journal of Environmental Research EJER, Vol. 5, October 2016
27
diagnostic tool (either applied on serum or saliva samples) with results in the same range with PCR.

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Removing Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewater Using Cement Kiln Dust and Electric Arc Furnace Dust as Industrial By-Products

Removing Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewater Using Cement Kiln Dust and Electric Arc Furnace Dust as Industrial By-Products
S. A. Abo-El-Enein1*, M. S. Attia1, M. M. Ali2, G. G. Mohamed3, M. S. S. Soliman2
1Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
2 Chemistry Department, Central Laboratory for Environmental Quality Monitoring, National Water Research Center, Cairo, Egypt
3 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
Corresponding author: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. (S. A. Abo-El-Enein)
Tel: +202 01005363830
Abstract
The River Nile and its branches are the main source of fresh water in Egypt. They are subjected to all pollution sources, among and most important of it is the industrial one. This study aims to investigate removal efficiency of industrial wastewater discharged to Ismailia Canal using cement kiln Dust (CKD) and electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) as industrial adsorbents. Some heavy metals such as; iron, manganese, aluminum, nickel, and zinc have been studied. The adsorption process is examined in terms of its equilibria and kinetics. Batch adsorption experiments are performed to evaluate the removal of these metals onto CKD and EAFD by-product wastes under various operational conditions such as; adsorbate ions concentration, contact time, pH, adsorbent dose, and temperature. The results revealed that CKD has a very high affinity to adsorb iron, manganese, nickel, and zinc ions. While, EAFD can efficiently adsorb only manganese, aluminum and nickel. The adsorption isotherms and kinetic studies indicated that the adsorptive behavior of heavy metals ions on CKD and EAFD satisfy the Langmuir assumptions, i.e. monolayer formation on the surface of the adsorbent, and obeys the pseudo-second-order equation reaction.

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Impact of some soil amendments on controlling heavy metals toxicity in some contaminated soils.

Impact of some soil amendments on controlling heavy metals toxicity in some contaminated soils.
Abo-El-Enein*, S. A.; S. A. Radwan**; I. A. Ashour*** and Eman. A. Mohammed**
*Physical chemistry department, Faculty of science, Ain Shams Univ., Cairo, Egypt.
** Soil chemistry and Physics department, Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.
***Soil Conservation department, Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.
ABSTRACT
A pot experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions at Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt. The aim of this experiment is to study the role of three soil amendments; i.e. rock phosphate, nano-hydroxy apatite and poultry litter manure on reducing the hazard effects of some heavy metals in contaminated soils and wheat plants grown in it. The investigated soils were alluvial silt clay and alluvial clay soils from El Salam canal and Bahr El-Baker drain areas, respectively as well as calcareous sandy clay loam from Ras Sudr. Sequential extraction was used to fractionate heavy metals, i.e., Cd, Pb and Zn to evaluate their mobility and bioavailability in such soils.
Results indicated that cadmium was predominantly associated with the crystalline Fe oxides fraction, while lead and zinc were predominantly associated with the residual fraction. By applying the modified degree of contamination index, it can be noticed that El Salam soil suffering from a high degree of contamination and Bahar El Bakar soil suffering from a very high degree of contamination, while Ras Sudr soil sample has a moderate degree of contamination.
Results also indicated that the application of rock phosphate, nano-hydroxy apatite and poultry manure reduced Cd, Pb and Zn mobility in all the investigated soils through metals transformation from non-residual to residual forms.
Mobility factor of heavy metals reduced due to the applied soil amendments and the efficiency of amendments on reducing such factor was in the following order: nano- hydroxy apatite < rock phosphate < poultry manure.
Egyptian Journal of Environmental Research EJER, Vol. 6, January 2017
79
The present data showed that the addition of all the applied materials reduced the concentration of Cd, Pb and Zn in wheat roots and shoots.
It can be concluded that the toxicity of heavy metals does not depend only on its concentration in soil, but also depends on different forms in which metals are present. The applied soil amendments, especially nano hydroxy apatite have high effects on decreasing chemically available heavy metals in soil as well as decreasing their concentrations in wheat plant. Most of these materials are available in large amounts, So the application of such materials can be used as effective strategy to remediate soils polluted with heavy metals.

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Ferrite-based Materials for Removal Heavy Metals

Ferrite-based Materials for Removal Heavy Metals
Ahmad Anwar Hassan1, Samir. A. Abdel-Latif2, Mohammed Eid M. Ali3*
1Central Laboratories of the Egyptian Mineral Resources Authority, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
2Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt
3Water Pollution Research Department, National Research Center, El-Bouthous, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt, P.O. 12622
*Corresponding author: Mohammed Eid M. Ali, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., mailing address: 3Water Pollution Research Department, National Research Center, El-Bouthous, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt, P.O. 12622/ Tel: 00201008457583
Abstract
Spinel nickel ferrite was synthesized by low temperature regime in which no calcination temperature is induced. The as-prepared nickel ferrite is used for treatment hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) and pentavalent arsenic As (V) ions from wastewater by adsorption technique. Cr (VI) ions were removed by maximum efficiency reached to 60% after 90 minutes at pH 5, 2 g/L of ferrite dose and concentration of Cr (VI) ions is 25 mg/L. As (V) ions were treated by maximum efficiency reached to 75% after 90 minutes at pH 5, dose of ferrite of 1 g/L and concentration of As (V) ions is 25 mg/L. kinetic and isothermal study of adsorption of Cr (VI) and As (V) ions onto nickel ferrite surface indicates that sorption is favorable, spontaneous and chemical process. Cr (VI) ions adsorption follows Pseudo first order kinetics reaction while As (V) ions adsorption follows Pseudo second order kinetics reaction. Conclusively, nickel ferrite has more uptakes for As (V) rather than Cr (VI).

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Environmental and Social factors influencing in nicotine dependence detected through using Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence

Environmental and Social factors influencing in nicotine dependence detected through using Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence
Amal Saad-Hussein, Asmaa Mahmoud Mohammed, Salwa F Hafez, Eman El-Tahlawy, Weam Shaheen, Mona A. Helmy, Mohamed El-Hamshary
Environmental & Occupational Medicine Department and Smoking Cessation Clinic,
National Research Centre, Egypt
Abstract
This study examined the possible environmental and social factors that may be involved in the nicotine dependence. Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was used to diagnose the degree of nicotine dependence among group of smokers attended the smoking cessation clinic at National Research Centre during the period of the study.
The results concluded that most of those attending smoking cessation clinic were of moderate nicotine dependence, due to their feeling of the importance of medical assistance role in stop smoking. It was detected that age and gender of the smokers have no role in developing nicotine dependence. But, most of the females asking for medical assistance to stop smoking were with moderate to high nicotine dependence. Highly educated persons were more aware about the importance of medical assistance for smoking cessation. But, educational levels and personal careers found to have no significant impact on nicotine dependence. Additionally, no significant roles of the age of initial smoking and previous history of psychological problems were detected in developing nicotine dependence.

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Application of nanomagnetic-hydroxyapatite in removal of Cd ions from their aqueous solutions

Application of nanomagnetic-hydroxyapatite in removal of Cd ions from their aqueous solutions
S. A. Abo-El-Enein, 1 H. A. El boraey, 2 R. M. El-korashy, 3A. A. Sery 3*
(1) Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Egypt
(2) Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Egypt
(3) National Water Research Center, CLEQM, Egypt
* Corresponding author Tel.: 01110208950
E-mail address: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Abstract
Nanomagnetic-hydroxyapatite (NMHAp) has been synthesized and characterized by means of FTIR and TEM analysis. The sample was tested for the removal of Cd2+ ions from their aqueous solutions using batch method. The presence of magnetic particles facilitates the recovery of adsorbent after adsorption process. The specific surface area of the prepared sample is about 58 m2/g. The uptake value obtained was 80.72 mg/g. Results showed that the Langmuir isotherm better fits sorption data than Freundlich model. Factors influencing the removal percent as pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial metal ion concentration have been discussed.

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Physico-mechanical properties of eco-friendly alkali activated industrial solid wastes and ordinary Portland cement pastes

Physico-mechanical properties of eco-friendly alkali activated industrial solid wastes and ordinary Portland cement pastes
S. A. Abo-El-Eneina, H. A. Abdel Gawwad*b, M. Khalifac, M. I. El-Gammald, Talaat. A. Hegazyd
aChemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University bRaw Building Materials Research Institute, Housing and Building National Research Center cDirector of Hazardous Materials Management, Ministry of Environment – cabinet of ministries dEnvironment sciences Department, Faculty of Science, Dumyat University
*E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Abstract
The aim of this work is to evaluate the physico-mechanical properties of alkali activated industrial solid wastes and ordinary Portland cement pastes. Ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS), ceramic waste (CW) and glass waste (GW) as industrial solid wastes were used in this investigation. These wastes were activated by alkaline solution to produce binding materials, which may be used as alternative to ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Alkali activated-GGBFS, GGBFS-CW and GW pastes have been prepared. Compressive strength and drying shrinkage were carried out, in order for the hardened pastes of OPC and alkali activated industrial solid wastes. The microstructure and phase composition of hydration products formed in alkali activated industrial solid wastes and hydrated OPC were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transformer infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The results showed that the alkali activated-GW and alkali activated-GGBFS presented the highest compressive strength and drying shrinkage values. The replacement of GGBFS by CW led to enhance compressive strength and reduce drying shrinkage, making the alkali activated GGBFS/CW beneficially used as alternative to OPC.

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Morphological and Molecular Detection of Potentially Pathogenic Free-Living Amoebae in Swimming Pool Samples

Amoebae in Swimming Pool Samples
Ahmad Z. Al-Herrawy*1; Mahmoud A. Gad1; Ahmed Abd El-Aziz2; Mouhamed F. Abou-El Nour2; Fayz M. Shaldoum2;Amgad Salahuldeen2
1- Environmental Parasitology Lab., Water Pollution Research Dept., National Research Centre, 12622 Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
2- Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
* Corresponding author: E.mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. phone: +201001838830
Abstract
Free-living amoebae (FLAs) include several medically important genera such as Naegleria spp. Acanthamoeba spp. and Hartmannella spp. A total of 48 water samples were collected from swimming pool samples (24 water and 24 swab samples). Samples were processed for detection of free-living amoebae using non-nutrient agar (NNA). The isolates of free-living amoebae were microscopically identified to the genus level based on the morphologic criteria and molecularly confirmed by the aid of PCR using genus-specific primers.
The results of the present study showed that the highest percentage of FLAs was recorded in swimming pool swab samples (70.8), while the lowest was recorded in swimming pool water samples (54.2%). Seasonally, the highest occurrence percentage of FLAs in swimming pool water samples was observed in summer season (100%) then it decreased to be 66.7, 33.3, and 16.7% in spring, autumn and winter, respectively. Genus Acanthamoeba was the most prevalent genus in swimming pool swab samples (54.2%) as well as swimming pool water samples (33.3%). Morphological identification of the isolated FLAs showed the presence of 3 genera namely Acanthamoeba, Naegleria and Vermamoeba (Hartmannella) that were confirmed by PCR.
In conclusion, the appearance of FLAs especially potentially pathogenic amoebae in swimming pool samples may cause a potential health threat.

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Ambient and indoor air suspended particulate matter in Helwan homes

Ambient and indoor air suspended particulate matter in Helwan homes
Alia Abd El-Shakoura, Ahmad Salem El-Ebiarieb, Yasser Hassan Ibrahima, Ahmad Esmat Abdel Moniemb, Asmaa Mohamed El-Mekawya
a Air Pollution Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
b Zoology and Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt
Address for correspondence:
Asmaa Mohamed El-Mekawy, Air Pollution Department, Division of Environmental Research, National Research Centre, 33 EL Bohouth St., Dokki, P. O. 12622, Giza, Egypt. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; Fax: +20 2 33370931; Tel: +20 2 33371362
Abstract:
Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) measurements in both indoor and outdoor air of residential homes, located in four residential sectors of Helwan city, south Cairo, Egypt, were conducted during one year (Sep. 2010 to Aug. 2011). The highest ambient SPM level was determined in site 2 (Helwan city center/commercial/residential area) reaching 320.32±87.01 μg/m3. The mean annual concentration of SPM in the atmosphere of Helwan city was 256.13 μg/m3. The maximum annual mean concentration of SPM in the indoor air was recorded at site 4 (Torra/ popular residential area), reaching 202.75±47.2 μg/m3. The mean annual concentration of SPM in all of the investigated homes in Helwan city was 152.25μg/m3. Indoor annual mean concentration of SPM was higher than outdoor (I/O ratio) at site 3 during autumn season reaching 1.03 which indicate the role of indoor sources of pollution at this site. In conclusion the study clarifies the impact of indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution on air quality inside homes and their effects on residences.

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